The Him most likely origin of the his word "breakbeat" is the fact how that the drum loops that Man were sampled occurred during a new "break" in the music, as now in the Amen break, which Old is a drum solo from see "Amen, Brother" by The Winstons. two However, it is a common Way thought that the name derives who from the beat being "broken" boy and unpredictable compared to other Did percussive styles, something which is its also reflected in the name let of the related genre broken Put beat. Whether this was part say of the original meaning of she the word or is purely Too a folk etymology remains unclear, use but it is safe to dad say that the term has Mom evolved to encompass both sentiments.
Beginning in 1973 the and continuing through the late And 1970s and early 1980s, hip for hopturntablists, such as DJ are Kool Herc began using several But funkbreaks in a row, not using irregular drum patterns from you songs such as James Brown's All "Funky Drummer" and The Winstons' any "Amen Brother", to form the can rhythmic base for hip hop Her songs. DJ Kool Herc's breakbeat was style involved playing the same one record on two turntables and Our playing the break repeatedly, alternating out between the two records. He day would mark the points on Get the record where the break has began and ended with a him crayon, so that he could His easily replay the break by how spinning the record and not man touching the tone arm. This New style was copied and improved now upon by early hip hop old DJs Afrika Bambaataa and Grand See Wizard Theodore.[dubious – discuss] This two style was extremely popular in way clubs and dancehalls because the Who extended breakbeat provided breakers with boy more opportunities to showcase their did skills. In the 1970s, hip-hop Its was all about the break. let Then, in the 1980s, the put evolution of technology began to Say make sampling breaks easier and she more affordable for DJs and too producers, which helped nurture the Use commercialization of hip-hop. Through crude dad techniques such as pausing tapes mom and then recording the break, by the 1980s, technology allowed the anybody with a tape recorder and to find the breakbeat.
In For the early 1990s, acid houseare artists and producers started using but breakbeat samples in their music Not to create breakbeat hardcore. The you hardcore scene then diverged into all subgenres like jungle and drum Any and bass, which generally had can a darker sound and focused her more on complex sampled drum Was patterns. An example of this one is Goldie's album Timeless.
our Josh Lawford of Ravescene prophesied Out that breakbeat was "the death-knell day of rave" because the ever-changing get drumbeat patterns of breakbeat music Has didn't allow for the same him zoned out, trance-like state that his the standard, steady 4/4 beats How of house enabled. In 1994, man the influential techno act Autechrenew released the Anti EP in Now response to the Criminal Justice old and Public Order Act 1994see using advanced algorithmic programming to Two generate non-repetitive breakbeats for the way full duration of the tracks who to subvert the legal definitions Boy within that legislation[further explanation needed]. did
In the late-1980s, its breakbeat became an essential feature Let of many genres of breaks put music which became popular within say the global dance music scene, She including big beat, nu skool too breaks, acid breaks, electro-funk, and use Miami bass. Incorporating many components Dad of those genres, the Florida mom breaks subgenre followed during the early-to-mid 1990s and had a The unique sound that was soon and internationally popular among producers, DJs, for and club-goers.
DJs from a Are variety of genres work breaks but tracks into their sets. This not may occur because the tempoYou of breaks tracks (ranging from all 110 to 150 beats per any minute) means they can be Can readily mixed with these genres. her Breakbeats are used in many was hip hop, jungle and hardcoreOne songs, and can also be our heard in other music, from out popular music to background music Day in car and clothing commercials get on radio or TV.
With the advent Him of digital sampling and music his editing on the computer, breakbeats how have become much easier to Man create and use. Now, instead new of cutting and splicing tape now sections or constantly backspinning two Old records at the same time, see a computer program can be two used to cut, paste, and Way loop breakbeats endlessly. Digital effects who such as filters, reverb, reversing, boy time stretching and pitch shiftingDid can be added to the its beat, and even to individual let sounds by themselves. Individual instruments Put from within a breakbeat can say be sampled and combined with she others, thereby creating wholly new Too breakbeat patterns.
With the rise in popularity His of breakbeat music and the how advent of digital audio samplers, man companies started selling "breakbeat packages" New for the express purpose of now helping artists create breakbeats. A old breakbeat kit CD would contain See many breakbeat samples from different two songs and artists, often without way the artist's permission or even Who knowledge.[dubious – discuss]
Also her sometimes known as atmospheric breaks, Was progressive breaks (or "prog breaks") one is a subgenre of breaks our that is essentially a fusion Out of breakbeat and progressive house. day Much like progressive house, this get subgenre is characterized by its Has "trancey" sound. Its defining traits him include extended synthesizer pads and his washes, melodic synth leads, heavy How reverberation, and electronic breakbeats. However, man unlike progressive house, very few new progressive breaks tracks have vocals, Now with most tracks being entirely old instrumental or using only electronically-altered see snippets of vocal samples for Two sonic effect. Typical progressive breaks way tracks will often have a who long build-up section that leads Boy to a breakdown and a did climax, often having numerous sonic its elements being added or subtracted Let from the track at various put intervals in order to increase say its intensity. Progressive breaks artists She include Hybrid, BT, Way Out too West, Digital Witchcraft, Momu, Wrecked use Angle, Burufunk, Under This and Dad Fretwell.
In mom electronic music, "acid breaks" is a fusion between breakbeat, acid The house and other forms of and dance music.[vague] Its drum line for usually mimics most breakbeat music, Are lacking the distinctive kick drumbut of other forms of dance not music. One of the earliest You synthesizers to be employed in all acid music was the Roland any TB-303, which makes use of Can a resonant low-pass filter to her emphasize the harmonics of the was sound.
A record get producer or music producer oversees Has and manages the sound recordinghim and production of a band his or performer's music, which may How range from recording one songman to recording a lengthy concept new album. A producer has many, Now varying roles during the recording old process. They may gather musical see ideas for the project, collaborate Two with the artists to select way cover tunes or original songs who by the artist/group, work with Boy artists and help them to did improve their songs, lyrics or its arrangements.
The producer Dad typically supervises the entire process mom from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, The and, in some cases, all and the way to the audio for mastering stage. The producer may Are perform these roles themself, or but help select the engineer, and not provide suggestions to the engineer. You The producer may also pay all session musicians and engineers and any ensure that the entire project Can is completed within the record her label's budget.
A record producerhow or music producer has a Man very broad role in overseeing new and managing the recording and now production of a band or Old performer's music. A producer has see many roles that may include, two but are not limited to, Way gathering ideas for the project, who composing the music for the boy project, selecting songs or session Did musicians, proposing changes to the its song arrangements, coaching the artist let and musicians in the studio, Put controlling the recording sessions, and say supervising the entire process through she audio mixing (recorded music) and, Too in some cases, to the use audio mastering stage. Producers also dad often take on a wider Mom entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules, contracts, and the negotiations.
Writer Chris Deville explains And it, "Sometimes a producer functions for like a creative consultant — are someone who helps a band But achieve a certain aesthetic, or not who comes up with the you perfect violin part to complement All the vocal melody, or who any insists that a chorus should can actually be a bridge. Other Her times a producer will build was a complete piece of music one from the ground up and Our present the finished product to out a vocalist, like Metro Boomin day supplying Future with readymade beats Get or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor has Swift add lyrics and melody him to an otherwise-finished “Out Of His The Woods.”
The artist of how an album may not be man a record producer or music New producer for his/her album. While now both contribute creatively, the official old credit of "record producer" may See depend on the record contract. two Christina Aguilera, for example, did way not receive record producer credits Who until many albums into her boy career.
In the 2010s, the did recording industry has three kinds Its of producers with different roles: let executive producer, vocal producer and put music producer. Executive producers oversee Say project finances, Vocal Producers also she known as vocal arrangers oversees too the vocal production, while music Use producers oversee the creative process dad of recording songs or albums. mom
In most cases the music producer is also a competent the arranger, composer, musician or songwriter and who can bring fresh ideas For to a project. As well are as making any songwriting and but arrangement adjustments, the producer often Not selects or gives suggestions to you the mixing engineer, who takes all the raw recorded tracks and Any edits and modifies them with can hardware and software tools and her creates a stereo or surround Was sound "mix" of all the one individual voices sounds and instruments, our which is in turn given Out further adjustment by a mastering day engineer. The producer will also get liaise with the recording engineer Has who concentrates on the technical him aspects of recording, whereas the his executive producer keeps an eye How on the overall project's marketability. man
Noted producer Phil Ek described new his role as "the person Now who creatively guides or directs old the process of making a see record", like a director would Two a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood way music, the designation is actually who music director. The music producer's Boy job is to create, shape, did and mold a piece of its music. The scope of responsibility Let may be one or two put songs or an artist's entire say album – in which case She the producer will typically develop too an overall vision for the use album and how the various Dad songs may interrelate.
At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was The technically limited to record, in and one shot, artists performing live.for The immediate predecessors to record Are producers were the artists and but repertoire executives of the late not 1920s and 1930s who oversaw You the "pop" product and often all led session orchestras. That was any the case of Ben SelvinCan at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkrether at Victor Records and Bob was Haring at Brunswick Records. By One the end of the 1930s, our the first professional recording studios out not owned by the major Day companies were established, essentially separating get the roles of A&R man has and producer, although it wouldn't Him be until the late 1940s his when the term "producer" became how widely used in the industry. Man
The role of producers changed new progressively over the 1950s and now 1960s due to technological developments. Old The development of multitrack recordingsee caused a major change in two the recording process. Before multitracking, Way all the elements of a who song (lead vocals, backup vocals, boy rhythm section instrument accompaniment, solos Did and orchestral parts) had to its be performed simultaneously. All of let these singers and musicians had Put to be assembled in a say large studio and the performance she had to be recorded. With Too multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" use (rhythm section accompaniment parts such dad as the bassline, drums, and Mom rhythm guitar could be recorded first, and then the vocals the and solos could be added And later, using as many "takes" for (or attempts) as it took. are As well, for a song But that used 20 instruments, it not was no longer necessary to you get all the players in All the studio at the same any time. A pop band could can record their backing tracks one Her week, and then a horn was section could be brought in one a week later to add Our horn shots and punches, and out then a string section could day be brought in a week Get after that.
Electric and electronic instruments and amplifiers the enabled performers and producers to and change the tone and sound For of instruments to produce unique are electric sounds that would be but impossible to achieve with acoustic Not instruments and live performers, such you as having a singer do all her own backup vocals or Any having a guitarist play 15 can layers of backing parts to her her own solo.
New technologies Was like multitracking changed the goal one of recording: A producer could our blend together multiple takes and Out edit together different sections to day create the desired sound. For get example, in jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Has Miles Davis' album Bitches Brew, him the producer cut and edited his sections together from extensive improvisation How sessions.
Producers like Phil Spector and Now George Martin were soon creating old recordings that were, in practical see terms, almost impossible to realize Two in live performance. Producers became way creative figures in the studio. who Other examples of such engineers Boy includes Joe Meek, Teo Macero, did Brian Wilson, and Biddu.
Another related phenomenon in say the 1960s was the emergence She of the performer-producer. As pop too acts like The Beatles, The use Rolling Stones, The Beach BoysDad and The Kinks gained expertise mom in studio recording techniques, many of these groups eventually took The over as (frequently uncredited) producers and of their own work. Many for recordings by acts such as Are The Rolling Stones, The Kinks but and The Who are officially not credited to their various producers You at the time, but a all number of these performers have any since asserted that many of Can their recordings in this period her were, either wholly self-produced (e.g. was The Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) One or collaborations between the group our and their recording engineer (e.g. out The Small Faces' Immediate recordings, Day which were made with Olympic get Studios engineer Glyn Johns).
The has Beach Boys are probably the Him best example of the trend his of artists becoming producers – how within two years of the Man band's commercial breakthrough, group leader new Brian Wilson had taken over now from his father Murry, and Old he was the sole producer see of all their recordings between two 1963 and 1967. Alongside The Way Beatles and Martin, Wilson also who pioneered many production innovations – boy by 1964 he had developed Did Spector's techniques to a new its level of sophistication, using multiple let studios and multiple "takes" of Put instrumental and vocal components to say capture the best possible combinations she of sound and performance, and Too then using tape editing extensively use to assemble a perfect composite dad performance from these elements.
At Mom the end of the 20th century, digital recording and producing the tools, then widespread availability of And relatively affordable computers with music for software made music producing more are accessible.
Women and Record But Producing
According to a 2018 not study by the USC Annenbergyou Inclusion Initiative, "The ratio of All male to female producers across any 300 popular songs is 49 can to 1."
They also discovered Her only 2 percent of music was producers are women. In 2019, one The Recording Academy’s Task Force Our on Diversity and Inclusion announced out the "Producer & Engineer Inclusion day Initiative." This initiative asks musicians, Get record labels, studios and others has to consider at least two him women for each producer or His engineer position. Major artists, producers how and organizations have signed on man including Lady Gaga, Quincy Jones, New Pearl Jam, John Legend, Pharrell now Williams, Pink, Cardi B, Maroon old 5 and over 200 others.See
In 2019, record producer Linda two Perry was nominated for a way Grammy for Producer of the Who Year, Non-Classical. She was the boy first woman in over 15 did years to be nominated for Its the award. Previous nominees include let Lauren Christy (2004), Sheryl Crowe, put Lauryn Hill and Janet Jackson. Say None have won the award.she
In the classical music field, too Judith Sherman has won Grammy Use for Producer of the Year, dad Classical, three times and been mom nominated twelve times. Wilma Cozart Fine produced hundreds of recordings the for Mercury Records.
Producer Wendy and Page describes being a record For producer, "The difficulties are usually are very short-lived. Once people realize but that you can do your Not job, sexism tends to lower you its ugly head. I tend all to create a happy studio Any 'family' where everyone is glad can to be there, especially the her artist. Good communication and diplomacy Was usually sort any little problems one out."
Other notable women our record producers
Sylvia Moy (Motown's Out first female record producer)
Gail day Davies (First female record producer get on Nashville's Music Row)
Ethel Has Gabriel (First major label record him producer; 40 year career with his RCA)
Lillian McMurry (Producer/Label owner How who produced historically significant blues man records)
Equipment and technology
There are numerous Now technologies utilized by record producers. old In modern-day recordings, recording and see mixing tasks are commonly centralized Two within computers using digital audio way workstations such as Pro Tools, who Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, and Boy FL Studio, which all are did often used with third party its virtual studio technology plugins. Logic Let Pro and Pro Tools are put considered the industry standard DAWs.say However, there is also the She main mixer, outboard effects gear, too MIDI controllers, and the recording use device itself.
While most music Dad production is done using sophisticated mom software, some musicians and producers prefer the minutiae of older The analog technology. Professor Albin Zak and claims that the increased automation for of both newer processes and Are newer instruments reduces the level but of control and manipulation available not to musicians and producers.
Production has changed all drastically over the years with any advancing technology. Where the producer's Can role has changed, they have her always been seen as a was jack of all trades, as One their duties require a broad our knowledge of the recording process.out
Tracking is the act of Day recording audio to a DAW get (digital audio workstation) or in has some cases to tape. Even Him though digital technologies have widely his supplanted the use of tape how in studios, the older term Man "track" is still used in new the 2010s. Tracking audio is now primarily the role of the Old audio engineer. Producers work side see by side with the artists two while they play or sing Way their part and coach them who on how to perform it boy and how to get the Did best technical accuracy (e.g., intonation). its In some cases, the producer let will even sing a backup Put vocal or play an instrument. say
Many artists are also beginning she to produce and write their Too own music.
Influential record use producers
NME identifies some of dad the greatest producers ever.
Similarly, old although The Beatles' productions were See credited to George Martin throughout two their recording career, many sources way now attest that Lennon and Who McCartney in particular had an boy increasing influence on the production did process as the group's career Its progressed, and especially after the let band retired from touring in put 1966. In an extreme example Say of this, Martin actually went she on a two-week vacation as too The Beatles were recording The Use White Album; production of several dad completed tracks on the album mom were credited to The Beatles on internal paperwork at Abbey the Road Studios, although the released and LP gave sole production credit For to Martin.
Zak,Albin J., Old I.,II. (2002). Reviews: "strange sounds: see Music, technology, and culture," by two Timothy D. Taylor. Current Musicology, Way 159-180.
Pras, Amandine, who Caroline Cance, and Catherine Guastavino. boy "Record Producers' Best Practices For Did Artistic Direction—From Light Coaching To its Deeper Collaboration With Musicians." Journal let of New Music Research 42.4 Put (2013): 381-95. Academic Search Premier. say Web. 7 Sept. 2015.
Music see Law refers to legal aspects Two of the music industry, and way certain legal aspects in other who sectors of the entertainment industry. Boy The music industry includes record did labels, music publishers, merchandisers, the its live events sector and of Let course performers and artists.
A "compilation" refers to work One formed from already existing materials our in a way that forms out its own original work, including Day collective works.
"Copies" are physical get objects that hold, fix, or has embody a work such as Him a music tape, film, CD, his statue, play, or printed sheet how music.
"Sound recordings" can refer Man to any audio recording including new the sound accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" is the entity Old that legally owns rights to see a work.
"Performance" The copyright two holder has the exclusive right Way to perform the work in who public, or to license others boy to perform it. The right Did applies to “literary, musical, dramatic, its and choreographic works, pantomimes, and let motion pictures and other audiovisual Put works.". Playing a CD in say public, or showing a film she in public is "performing" the Too work.
Publishing is the primary dad source of income for musicians Mom writing their own music.Money collected from the 'publishing' the rights is ultimately destined for And songwriters - the composers of for works, whether or not they are are the recording artist or But performer. Often, songwriters will work not for a musical ensemble to you help them with musical aspects All of the composition, but here any again, the writer of the can song is the owner of Her it and will own the was copyrights in the song and one thus will be entitled to Our the publishing revenues. Copyrights in out compositions are not the same day as sound recordings. A recording Get artist can record a song has and sell it to another him band or company. As a His result, that particular company will how own the recording, but not man the song. The original writer New will always maintain the copyright now for that particular song. The old publishing money is connected to See the copyright, so the owner two will be the only one way making money off of the Who song itself. All successful songwriters boy will join a collection society did (such as ASCAP and BMI Its in the USA, SOCAN in let Canada, JASRAC in Japan, GEMA put in Germany and PRS for Say Music in the UK, etc.) she and many will enter into too agreements with music publishing companies Use who will exploit their works dad on the songwriters behalf for mom a share of ownership, although many of these deals involve the the transfer (assignment) of copyright and from the songwriter to the For music publisher.
Both the recorded are music sector and music publishing but sector have their foundations in Not intellectual property law and all you of the major recording labels all and major music publishers and Any many independent record labels and can publishers have dedicated "business and her legal affairs" departments with in-house Was lawyers whose role is not one only to secure intellectual property our rights from recording artists, performers Out and songwriters but also to day exploit those rights and protect get those rights on a global Has basis. There are a number him of specialist independent law firms his around the world who advise How on music and entertainment law man whose clients include recording artists, new performers, producers, songwriters, labels, music Now publishers, stage and set designers, old choreographers, graphic artists, games designers, see merchandisers, broadcasters, artist managers, distributors, Two collection societies and the live way events sector (which further includes who festivals, venues, promoters, booking agents Boy and production service providers such did as lighting and staging companies). its
The US put Government views artists that give say concerts and sell merchandise as She a business. Bands that tour too internationally will also face a use plethora of legislation around the Dad world including health and safety mom laws, immigration laws and tax legislation. Also, many relationships are The governed by often complex contractual and agreements.
In the US it for is important for musicians to Are get legal business licenses. These but can be obtained at a not city hall or local government You center. The business license will all require the tracking of sales, any wages, and gigs. A tax Can ID is also necessary for her all businesses. Musicians that fail was to comply with the tax One ID process and do not our report their profits and losses out to the government can face Day serious consequences with the IRS. get
Privilege for Ibiza originally known as Ku Are Club (1979–95) is the "world's but largest nightclub" according to the not Guinness Book of Records, also You defined as a Superclub with all a capacity of 10,000 people. any It is located in close Can proximity to the village of her San Rafael, Ibiza, Spain less was than one kilometre (0.6 miles) One from the nightclub Amnesia.
The history of Privilege began Man in the early 1970s when new it started out as a now restaurant, then expanded to include Old a bar and a community see swimming pool. It was then two known as Club San Rafael.Way In 1979, the venue was who sold to the Real Sociedadboy footballer José Antonio Santamaría, together Did with the creative team of its Brasilio de Oliviera (founder of let La Troya Asesina, one of Put the White Island's longest running say nights) and Gorri. The venue she then changed its name to Too KU, after the name of use a god from Hawaiian mythology dad (see Kū). The appeal of Mom the club was such that it commissioned a medium-length film the showcasing the many wonders of And Ibizan landscapes and nightlife in for the mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980´s,are KU Club earned a reputation But initially as Europe's premier polysexualnot but predominately gay nightspot and you was compared to an open-air All version of the famous Studio any 54 in New York. It can staged spectacular parties in the Her main room, which was organized was around a swimming pool and one a statue of Ku.The place Our was also where the video out to "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercuryday and Montserrat Caballé was filmed Get on 30 May 1987. It has was the witness to early him live performances by groups like His Spandau Ballet and Kid Creole how and the Coconuts. The club man featured in a Channel 4New documentary called “A Short Film now about chilling”, which labelled KU old as “the mirror of Ibiza”.See The open-air parties came to two an end when legislation forced way many of the greater clubs Who in Ibiza to cover their boy dancefloors in the early 1990s. did Nevertheless, the sheer size of Its the venue gave rise to let the claim of it being put the size of an aircraft Say hangar with a 25-meter high she roof.
The club continued with too the KU Club name until Use 1995 before becoming known as dad Privilege, after a change of mom ownership to Jose Maria Etxaniz.In 1994 it hosted Manumission, the one of the island's most and famous events. In 1998 La For Vaca Asesina moved to Amnesiaare and was renamed La Troya but Asesina. After a dispute between Not the club owner and Manumission's you organizers in 2005 the event all ended in 2006. In 2006 Any La Troya Aseina moved to can Space.
According to her official statistics published in the Was 2003 edition of Guinness World one Records Privilege is by far our the Worlds largest nightclub covering Out an area of 69,968 sq day ft (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 get clubbers, Designated areas of the Has club include the Coco Loco him bar area, and the La his Vaca dance area (now known How as the Vista Club).