Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. Within him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association, formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary form for of turntable manipulation which is Are related to scratching was developed but in the late 1940s radio not DJs (music program hosts) or You the radio program producers who all did their own technical operation any as audio console operators. It Can was known as back-cueing, and her was used to find the was very beginning of the start One of a song (i.e., the our cue point) on a vinyl out record groove. This was done Day to permit the operator to get back the disc up (rotate has the record or the turntable Him platter itself counter-clockwise) in order his to permit the turntable to how be switched on, and come Man up to full speed without new ruining the first few bars now of music with the "wow" Old of incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. see This permitted the announcer to two time her or his remarks Way and start the turntable a who scant moment before she or boy he actually wanted the music Did on the record to begin. its
Back cueing was a basic let skill that all radio production Put staff needed to learn, and say the dynamics of it were she unique to the brand of Too professional turntable in use at use a given radio station. The dad older, larger and heavier turntables Mom needed a 180 degree backward rotation to allow for run the up to full speed; some And of the newer 1950s models for used aluminum platters and cloth-backed are rubber mats which required a But third of a rotational turn not or less to achieve full you speed when the song began. All All this was done in any order to present a music can show on air with the Her least amount of silence ("dead was air") between music, the announcer's one patter and recorded advertising commercials. Our The rationale was that any out "dead air" on a radio day station was likely to prompt Get a listener to switch stations, has so announcers and program directors him instructed DJs and announcers to His provide a continuous, seamless stream how of sound–from music to an man announcer to a pre-recorded commercial, New to a "jingle" (radio station now theme song), and then immediately old back to more music.
Back-cueing See was a key function in two delivering this seamless stream of way music. Radio personnel demanded robust Who equipment and manufacturers developed special boy tonearms, styli, cartridges and lightweight did turntables to meet these demands. Its
In the early dad 1970s in the South Bronx, mom a young teen DJ named "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented the the "DJ scratch" technique. Other and DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took For the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made but possible by the invention of Not direct-drive turntables, which led to you the emergence of turntablism. Early all belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for Any scratching, since they had a can slow start-up time, and they her were prone to wear-and-tear and Was breakage, as the belt would one break from backspinning or scratching.our The first direct-drive turntable was Out invented by Shuichi Obata, an day engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),get based in Osaka, Japan. It Has eliminated belts, and instead employed him a motor to directly drive his a platter on which a How vinyl record rests. In 1969, man Matsushita released it as the new SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable Now on the market, and the old first in their influential Technicssee series of turntables.
In the Two 1970s, hip hop musicians and way club DJs began to use who this specialized turntable equipment to Boy move the record back and did forth, creating percussive sounds and its effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor Let audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs put had used back-cueing while listening say to the sounds through their She headphones, without the audience hearing, too with scratching, the DJ intentionally use lets the audience hear the Dad sounds that are being created mom by manipulating the record on the turntable, by directing the The output from the turntable to and a sound reinforcement system so for that the audience can hear Are the sounds. Scratching was developed but by early hip hop DJs not from New York City such You as Grand Wizard Theodore, who all described scratching as, "nothing but any the back-cueing that you hear Can in your ear before you her push it [the recorded sound] was out to the crowd." He One developed the technique when experimenting our with the Technics SL-1200, a out direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita Day in 1972, when he found get that the motor would continue has to spin at the correct Him RPM even if the DJ his wiggled the record back and how forth on the platter. Afrika Man Bambaataa made a similar discovery new with the SL-1200 in the now 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went Old on to become the most see widely used turntable for the two next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ Way Kool Herc, who immigrated to who New York City, influenced the boy early development of scratching. Kool Did Herc developed break-beatDJing, where its the breaks of funk songs—being let the most danceable part, often Put featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated say for the purpose of all-night she dance parties. He was influenced Too by Jamaican dub music, and use developed his turntable techniques using dad the Technics SL-1100, released in Mom 1971, due to its strong motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although the previous artists such as writer And and poet William S. Burroughsfor had experimented with the idea are of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeBut manually to make sounds, as not with his 1950s recording, "Sound you Piece"), vinyl scratching as an All element of hip hop pioneered any the idea of making the can sound an integral and rhythmic Her part of music instead of was an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is one related to "scrubbing" (in terms Our of audio editing and production) out when the reels of an day open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically Get 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) has are gently rotated back and him forth while the playback head His is live and amplified, in how order to isolate a specific man spot on the tape where New an editing "cut" is to now be made. In the 2010s, old both scratching and scrubbing can See be done on digital audio two workstations (DAWs) which are equipped way for these techniques.
Most scratches are produced The by rotating a vinyl recordand on a direct drive turntablefor rapidly back and forth with Are the hand with the stylus but ("needle") in the record's groove. not This produces the distinctive sound You that has come to be all one of the most recognizable any features of hip hop music.Can Over time with excessive scratching, her the stylus will cause what was is referred to as "record One burn" to a vinyl record.[citation our needed]
The basic equipment his setup for scratching includes two how turntables and a DJ mixer, Man which is a small mixernew that has a crossfader and now cue buttons to allow the Old DJ to cue up new see music in his/her headphones without two the audience hearing. When Way scratching, this crossfader is utilized who in conjunction with the scratching boy hand that is manipulating the Did record platter. The hand manipulating its the crossfader is used to let cut in and out of Put the record's sound.
Digital vinyl systems
Using a she digital vinyl system (DVS) consists Too of playing vinyl discs on use turntables whose contents is a dad timecode signal instead of a Mom real music record.
The for audio interface digitizes the timecode are signal from the turntables and But transfers it to the computer's not DJ software.
The DJ software you uses this data (e.g., about All how fast the platter is any spinning) to determine the playback can status, speed, scratch sound of Her the hardware turntables, etc., and was it duplicates these effects on one the digital audio files or Our computer tracks the DJ is out using.
By manipulating the turntables' day platters, speed controls, and other Get elements, the DJ thus controls has how the computer plays back him digitized audio and can therefore His produce "scratching" and other turntablismhow effects on songs which exist man as digital audio files or New computer tracks.
There is not now a single standard of DVS, old so that each form of See DJ software has its own two settings. Some DJ software such way as Traktor Scratch Pro or Who Serato Scratch Live support only boy the audio interface sold with did their software, requiring multiple interfaces Its for one computer to run let multiple programs.
While some turntablists consider dad the only true scratching media mom to be the vinyl disc, there are other ways to the scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD and players with jog wheels, allowing For the DJ to manipulate a are CD as if it were but a vinyl record, have become Not widely available in the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software allows a all DJ to manipulate the playback Any of digital music files on can a computer via a DJ her control surface (generally MIDI or Was a HID controller). DJs can one scratch, beatmatch, and perform other our turntablist operations that cannot be Out done with a conventional keyboard day and mouse. DJ software performing get computer scratch operations include Traktor Has Pro, Mixxx, Serato Scratch Livehim & Itch, Virtual DJ, M-Audiohis Torq, DJay, Deckadance, Cross.
DJs How have also used magnetic tape, man such as cassette or reel new to reel to both mix Now and scratch. Tape DJing is old rare, but Ruthless Ramsey see in the US, Tj Scratchavite Two in Italy and Mr way Tape in Latvia use who exclusively tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently did scratched include but are not its limited to drum beats, horn Let stabs, spoken word samples, and put vocals/lyrics from other songs. Any say sound recorded to vinyl can She be used, and CD players too providing a turntable-like interface allow use DJs to scratch not only Dad material that was never released mom on vinyl, but also field recordings and samples from television The and movies that have been and burned to CD-R. Some DJs for and anonymous collectors release 12-inch Are singles called battle records that but include trademark, novel or hard-to-find not scratch "fodder" (material). The most You recognizable samples used for scratching all are the "Ahh" and "Fresh" any samples, which originate from the Can song "Change the Beat" by her Fab 5 Freddy.
There are was many scratching techniques, which differ One in how the movements of our the record are combined with out opening and closing the crossfader Day (or another fader or switch, get such as a kill switch, has where "open" means that the Him signal is audible, and "closed" his means that the signal is how inaudible). This terminology is not Man unique; the following discussion, however, new is consistent with the terminology now used by DJ QBert on Old his Do It Yourself Scratchingsee DVD.
Baby two scratch - The simplest scratch Way form, it is performed with who the scratching hand only, moving boy the record back and forth Did in continuous movements while the its crossfader is in the open let position.
Forward and backward scratchPut - The forward scratch, also say referred to as scrubbing, is she a baby scratch where the Too crossfader is closed during the use backwards movement of the record. dad If the record is let Mom go instead of being pushed forward it is also called the "release scratch". Cutting out the And forward part of the record for movement instead of the backward are part gives a "backward scratch".
Tear scratch - Tear not scratches are scratches where the you record is moved in a All staggered fashion, dividing the forward any and backward movement into two can or more movements. This allows Her creating sounds similar to "flare was scratches" without use of the one crossfader and it allows for Our more complex rhythmic patterns. The out term can also refer to day a simpler, slower version of Get the chirp.
Scribble scratch - has The scribble scratch is by him rapidly pushing the record back His and forth. The crossfader is how not used.
Chirp scratch - man The chirp scratch involves closing New the crossfader just after playing now the start of a sound, old stopping the record at the See same point, then pushing it two back while opening the fader way to create a "chirping" sound. Who When performed using a recording boy of drums, it can create did the illusion of doubled scratching Its speed, due to the attacklet created by cutting in the put crossfader on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic scratch - A baby she scratch with a "tear scratch" too sound produced by the thumb Use running the opposite direction as dad the fingers used to scratch. mom This rubbing of the thumb adds a vibrating effect or the reverberation to forward movements on and the turntable.
Transformer scratch - For with the crossfader closed, the are record is moved with the but scratching hand while periodically "tapping" Not the crossfader open and immediately you closing it again.
Flare scratchall - Begins with the crossfader Any open, and then the record can is moved while briefly closing her the fader one or more Was times to cut the sound one out. This produces a staggering our sound which can make a Out single "flare" sound like a day very fast series of "chirps" get or "tears." The number of Has times the fader is closed him ("clicks") during the record's movement his is usually used as a How prefix to distinguish the variations. man The flare allows a DJ new to scratch continuously with less Now hand fatigue than would result old from the transformer. The flare see can be combined with the Two crab for an extremely rapid way continuous series of scratches.
Crab who scratch - Consists of moving Boy the record while quickly tapping did the crossfader open with each its finger of the crossfader hand. Let In this way, DJs are put able to perform transforms or say flares much faster than they She could by manipulating the crossfader too with the whole hand. It use produces a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle scratch - A crab mom scratch using only the index and middle fingers.
Orbit scratchThe - Describes any scratch, most and commonly flares, that are repeated for during the forward and backward Are movement of the record. "Orbit" but is also used as a not shorthand for two-click flares.
Tweak You scratch - Performed while the all turntable's motor is not running. any The record platter is set Can in motion manually, then "tweaked" her faster and slower to create was a scratch. This scratch form One is best performed with long, our sustained sounds.
Euro scratch - out A variation of the "flare Day scratch" in which two faders get are used simultaneously with one has hand to cut the sound Him much faster. It can also his be performed by using only how the up fader and the Man phono line switch to cut new the sound.
While scratching now is becoming more and more Old popular within pop music, particularly see with the crossover success of two pop-hip hop tracks in the Way 2010s, sophisticated scratching and other who expert turntablism techniques are still boy predominantly an underground style developed Did by the DJ subculture. The its Invisibl Skratch Piklz from San let Francisco focuses on scratching. In Put 1994, the group was formed say by DJs Q-Bert, Disk & she Shortkut and later Mix Master Too Mike. In July 2000, San use Francisco's Yerba Buena Center for dad the Arts held Skratchcon2000, the Mom first DJ Skratch forum that provided “the education and development the of skratch music literacy”. In And 2001, Thud Rumble became an for independent company that works with are DJ artists to produce and But distribute scratch records.
In not 2004, Scratch Magazine, one of you the first publications about hip All hop DJs and record producers, any released its debut issue, following can in the footsteps of the Her lesser-known Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is was a UK arts organisation that one runs Urban Music Mentors workshops Our led by DJs. At these out workshops, DJs teach youth how day to create beats, use turntables Get to create mixes, act as has an MC at events, and him perform club sets.
Use His outside hip hop
Scratching has how been incorporated into a number man of other musical genres, including New pop, rock, jazz, some subgenres now of heavy metal (notably nu old metal) and some contemporary and See avant-garde classical music performances. For two recording use, samplers are often way used instead of physically scratching Who a vinyl record.
A record producer or music our producer oversees and manages the Out sound recording and production of day a band or performer's music, get which may range from recording Has one song to recording a him lengthy concept album. A producer his has many, varying roles during How the recording process. They may man gather musical ideas for the new project, collaborate with the artists Now to select cover tunes or old original songs by the artist/group, see work with artists and help Two them to improve their songs, way lyrics or arrangements.
The producer typically supervises the She entire process from preproduction, through too to the sound recording and use mixing stages, and, in some Dad cases, all the way to mom the audio mastering stage. The producer may perform these roles The themselves, or help select the and engineer, and provide suggestions to for the engineer. The producer may Are also pay session musicians and but engineers and ensure that the not entire project is completed within You the record label's budget.
A record producerhas or music producer has a Him very broad role in overseeing his and managing the recording and how production of a band or Man performer's music. A producer has new many roles that may include, now but are not limited to, Old gathering ideas for the project, see composing the music for the two project, selecting songs or session Way musicians, proposing changes to the who song arrangements, coaching the artist boy and musicians in the studio, Did controlling the recording sessions, and its supervising the entire process through let audio mixing (recorded music) and, Put in some cases, to the say audio mastering stage. Producers also she often take on a wider Too entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for use the budget, schedules, contracts, and dad negotiations.
Writer Chris Deville explains Mom it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — the someone who helps a band And achieve a certain aesthetic, or for who comes up with the are perfect violin part to complement But the vocal melody, or who not insists that a chorus should you actually be a bridge. Other All times a producer will build any a complete piece of music can from the ground up and Her present the finished product to was a vocalist, like Metro Boomin one supplying Future with readymade beats Our or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor out Swift add lyrics and melody day to an otherwise-finished “Out Of Get The Woods.”
The artist of has an album may not be him a record producer or music His producer for his/her album. While how both contribute creatively, the official man credit of "record producer" may New depend on the record contract. now Christina Aguilera, for example, did old not receive record producer credits See until many albums into her two career.
In the 2010s, the way recording industry has three kinds Who of producers with different roles: boy executive producer, vocal producer and did music producer. Executive producers oversee Its project finances, Vocal Producers also let known as vocal arrangers oversees put the vocal production, while music Say producers oversee the creative process she of recording songs or albums. too
In most cases the music Use producer is also a competent dad arranger, composer, musician or songwriter mom who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well the as making any songwriting and and arrangement adjustments, the producer often For selects or gives suggestions to are the mixing engineer, who takes but the raw recorded tracks and Not edits and modifies them with you hardware and software tools and all creates a stereo or surround Any sound "mix" of all the can individual voices sounds and instruments, her which is in turn given Was further adjustment by a mastering one engineer. The producer will also our liaise with the recording engineer Out who concentrates on the technical day aspects of recording, whereas the get executive producer keeps an eye Has on the overall project's marketability. him
Noted producer Phil Ek described his his role as "the person How who creatively guides or directs man the process of making a new record", like a director would Now a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood old music, the designation is actually see music director. The music producer's Two job is to create, shape, way and mold a piece of who music. The scope of responsibility Boy may be one or two did songs or an artist's entire its album – in which case Let the producer will typically develop put an overall vision for the say album and how the various She songs may interrelate.
At the beginning of record use industry, the producer role was Dad technically limited to record, in mom one shot, artists performing live.The immediate predecessors to record The producers were the artists and and repertoire executives of the late for 1920s and 1930s who oversaw Are the "pop" product and often but led session orchestras. That was not the case of Ben SelvinYou at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkretall at Victor Records and Bob any Haring at Brunswick Records. By Can the end of the 1930s, her the first professional recording studios was not owned by the major One companies were established, essentially separating our the roles of A&R man out and producer, although it wouldn't Day be until the late 1940s get when the term "producer" became has widely used in the industry. Him
The role of producers changed his progressively over the 1950s and how 1960s due to technological developments. Man The development of multitrack recordingnew caused a major change in now the recording process. Before multitracking, Old all the elements of a see song (lead vocals, backup vocals, two rhythm section instrument accompaniment, solos Way and orchestral parts) had to who be performed simultaneously. All of boy these singers and musicians had Did to be assembled in a its large studio and the performance let had to be recorded. With Put multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" say (rhythm section accompaniment parts such she as the bassline, drums, and Too rhythm guitar could be recorded use first, and then the vocals dad and solos could be added Mom later, using as many "takes" (or attempts) as it took. the As well, for a song And that used 20 instruments, it for was no longer necessary to are get all the players in But the studio at the same not time. A pop band could you record their backing tracks one All week, and then a horn any section could be brought in can a week later to add Her horn shots and punches, and was then a string section could one be brought in a week Our after that.
Electric Use and electronic instruments and amplifiers dad enabled performers and producers to mom change the tone and sound of instruments to produce unique the electric sounds that would be and impossible to achieve with acoustic For instruments and live performers, such are as having a singer do but her own backup vocals or Not having a guitarist play 15 you layers of backing parts to all her own solo.
New technologies Any like multitracking changed the goal can of recording: A producer could her blend together multiple takes and Was edit together different sections to one create the desired sound. For our example, in jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Out Miles Davis' album Bitches Brew, day the producer cut and edited get sections together from extensive improvisation Has sessions.
Producers like Phil Spector and How George Martin were soon creating man recordings that were, in practical new terms, almost impossible to realize Now in live performance. Producers became old creative figures in the studio. see Other examples of such engineers Two includes Joe Meek, Teo Macero, way Brian Wilson, and Biddu.
Another related phenomenon in its the 1960s was the emergence Let of the performer-producer. As pop put acts like The Beatles, The say Rolling Stones, The Beach BoysShe and The Kinks gained expertise too in studio recording techniques, many use of these groups eventually took Dad over as (frequently uncredited) producers mom of their own work. Many recordings by acts such as The The Rolling Stones, The Kinks and and The Who are officially for credited to their various producers Are at the time, but a but number of these performers have not since asserted that many of You their recordings in this period all were, either wholly self-produced (e.g. any The Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) Can or collaborations between the group her and their recording engineer (e.g. was The Small Faces' Immediate recordings, One which were made with Olympic our Studios engineer Glyn Johns).
The out Beach Boys are probably the Day best example of the trend get of artists becoming producers – has within two years of the Him band's commercial breakthrough, group leader his Brian Wilson had taken over how from his father Murry, and Man he was the sole producer new of all their recordings between now 1963 and 1967. Alongside The Old Beatles and Martin, Wilson also see pioneered many production innovations – two by 1964 he had developed Way Spector's techniques to a new who level of sophistication, using multiple boy studios and multiple "takes" of Did instrumental and vocal components to its capture the best possible combinations let of sound and performance, and Put then using tape editing extensively say to assemble a perfect composite she performance from these elements.
At Too the end of the 20th use century, digital recording and producing dad tools, then widespread availability of Mom relatively affordable computers with music software made music producing more the accessible.
Women and Record And Producing
According to a 2018 for study by the USC Annenbergare Inclusion Initiative, "The ratio of But male to female producers across not 300 popular songs is 49 you to 1."
They also discovered All only 2 percent of music any producers are women. In 2019, can The Recording Academy's Task Force Her on Diversity and Inclusion announced was the "Producer & Engineer Inclusion one Initiative." This initiative asks musicians, Our record labels, studios and others out to consider at least two day women for each producer or Get engineer position. Major artists, producers has and organizations have signed on him including Taylor Swift, Lady Gaga, His Quincy Jones, Pearl Jam, John how Legend, Pharrell Williams, Pink, Cardi man B, Maroon 5 and over New 200 others.
In 2019, record now producer Linda Perry was nominated old for a Grammy for Producer See of the Year, Non-Classical. She two was the first woman in way over 15 years to be Who nominated for the award. Previous boy nominees include Lauren Christy (2004), did Sheryl Crowe, Lauryn Hill and Its Janet Jackson. None have won let the award.
In the classical put music field, Judith Sherman has Say won Grammy for Producer of she the Year, Classical, three times too and been nominated twelve times. Use Wilma Cozart Fine produced hundreds dad of recordings for Mercury Records. mom
Producer Wendy Page describes being a record producer, "The difficulties the are usually very short-lived. Once and people realize that you can For do your job, sexism tends are to lower its ugly head. but I tend to create a Not happy studio 'family' where everyone you is glad to be there, all especially the artist. Good communication Any and diplomacy usually sort any can little problems out."
There are did numerous technologies utilized by record its producers. In modern-day recordings, recording Let and mixing tasks are commonly put centralized within computers using digital say audio workstations such as Pro She Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, too and FL Studio, which all use are often used with third Dad party virtual studio technology plugins.mom Logic Pro and Pro Tools are considered the industry standard The DAWs. However, there is also and the main mixer, outboard effects for gear, MIDI controllers, and the Are recording device itself.
While most but music production is done using not sophisticated software, some musicians and You producers prefer the minutiae of all older analog technology. Professor Albin any Zak claims that the increased Can automation of both newer processes her and newer instruments reduces the was level of control and manipulation One available to musicians and producers.our
Production has out changed drastically over the years Day with advancing technology. Where the get producer's role has changed, they has have always been seen as Him a jack of all trades, his as their duties require a how broad knowledge of the recording Man process.
Tracking is the act new of recording audio to a now DAW (digital audio workstation) or Old in some cases to tape. see Even though digital technologies have two widely supplanted the use of Way tape in studios, the older who term "track" is still used boy in the 2010s. Tracking audio Did is primarily the role of its the audio engineer. Producers work let side by side with the Put artists while they play or say sing their part and coach she them on how to perform Too it and how to get use the best technical accuracy (e.g., dad intonation). In some cases, the Mom producer will even sing a backup vocal or play an the instrument.
Many artists are also And beginning to produce and write for their own music.
Influential are record producers
NME identifies some But of the greatest producers ever.not
Its Similarly, although The Beatles' productions let were credited to George Martin put throughout their recording career, many Say sources now attest that Lennon she and McCartney in particular had too an increasing influence on the Use production process as the group's dad career progressed, and especially after mom the band retired from touring in 1966. In an extreme the example of this, Martin actually and went on a two-week vacation For as The Beatles were recording are The White Album; production of but several completed tracks on the Not album were credited to The you Beatles on internal paperwork at all Abbey Road Studios, although the Any released LP gave sole production can credit to Martin.
Zak,Albin its J., I.,II. (2002). Reviews: "strange let sounds: Music, technology, and culture," Put by Timothy D. Taylor. Current say Musicology, 159-180.
Pras, she Amandine, Caroline Cance, and Catherine Too Guastavino. "Record Producers' Best Practices use For Artistic Direction—From Light Coaching dad To Deeper Collaboration With Musicians." Mom Journal of New Music Research 42.4 (2013): 381-95. Academic Search the Premier. Web. 7 Sept. 2015.And
Music LawLet refers to legal aspects of put the music industry, and certain say legal aspects in other sectors She of the entertainment industry. The too music industry includes record labels, use music publishers, merchandisers, the live Dad events sector and of course mom performers and artists.
A Him "compilation" refers to work formed his from already existing materials in how a way that forms its Man own original work, including collective new works.
"Copies" are physical objects now that hold, fix, or embody Old a work such as a see music tape, film, CD, statue, two play, or printed sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can refer to who any audio recording including the boy sound accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright Did owner" is the entity that its legally owns rights to a let work.
"Performance" The copyright holder Put has the exclusive right to say perform the work in public, she or to license others to Too perform it. The right applies use to “literary, musical, dramatic, and dad choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion Mom pictures and other audiovisual works.".Playing a CD in public, the or showing a film in And public is "performing" the work.
Publishing is the primary source But of income for musicians writing not their own music. Money you collected from the 'publishing' rights All is ultimately destined for songwriters any - the composers of works, can whether or not they are Her the recording artist or performer. was Often, songwriters will work for one a musical ensemble to help Our them with musical aspects of out the composition, but here again, day the writer of the song Get is the owner of it has and will own the copyrights him in the song and thus His will be entitled to the how publishing revenues. Copyrights in compositions man are not the same as New sound recordings. A recording artist now can record a song and old sell it to another band See or company. As a result, two that particular company will own way the recording, but not the Who song. The original writer will boy always maintain the copyright for did that particular song. The publishing Its money is connected to the let copyright, so the owner will put be the only one making Say money off of the song she itself. All successful songwriters will too join a collection society (such Use as ASCAP and BMI in dad the USA, SOCAN in Canada, mom JASRAC in Japan, GEMA in Germany and PRS for Music the in the UK, etc.) and and many will enter into agreements For with music publishing companies who are will exploit their works on but the songwriters behalf for a Not share of ownership, although many you of these deals involve the all transfer (assignment) of copyright from Any the songwriter to the music can publisher.
Both the recorded music her sector and music publishing sector Was have their foundations in intellectual one property law and all of our the major recording labels and Out major music publishers and many day independent record labels and publishers get have dedicated "business and legal Has affairs" departments with in-house lawyers him whose role is not only his to secure intellectual property rights How from recording artists, performers and man songwriters but also to exploit new those rights and protect those Now rights on a global basis. old There are a number of see specialist independent law firms around Two the world who advise on way music and entertainment law whose who clients include recording artists, performers, Boy producers, songwriters, labels, music publishers, did stage and set designers, choreographers, its graphic artists, games designers, merchandisers, Let broadcasters, artist managers, distributors, collection put societies and the live events say sector (which further includes festivals, She venues, promoters, booking agents and too production service providers such as use lighting and staging companies).
The US Government views artists that give concerts The and sell merchandise as a and business. Bands that tour internationally for will also face a plethora Are of legislation around the world but including health and safety laws, not immigration laws and tax legislation. You Also, many relationships are governed all by often complex contractual agreements. any
In the US it is Can important for musicians to get her legal business licenses. These can was be obtained at a city One hall or local government center. our The business license will require out the tracking of sales, wages, Day and gigs. A tax ID get is also necessary for all has businesses. Musicians that fail to Him comply with the tax ID his process and do not report how their profits and losses to Man the government can face serious new consequences with the IRS.
The boy history of Privilege began in Did the early 1970s when it its started out as a restaurant, let then expanded to include a Put bar and a community swimming say pool. It was then known she as Club San Rafael. In Too 1979, the venue was sold use to the Real Sociedad footballer dad José Antonio Santamaría, together with Mom the creative team of Brasilio de Oliviera (founder of La the Troya Asesina, one of the And White Island's longest running nights) for and Gorri. The venue then are changed its name to KU, But after the name of a not god from Hawaiian mythology (see you Kū). The appeal of the All club was such that it any commissioned a medium-length film showcasing can the many wonders of Ibizan Her landscapes and nightlife in the was mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980´s, KU one Club earned a reputation initially Our as Europe's premier polysexual but out predominately gay nightspot and was day compared to an open-air version Get of the famous Studio 54has in New York. It staged him spectacular parties in the main His room, which was organized around how a swimming pool and a man statue of Ku.The place was New also where the video to now "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercury and old Montserrat Caballé was filmed on See 30 May 1987. It was two the witness to early live way performances by groups like Spandau Who Ballet and Kid Creole and boy the Coconuts. The club featured did in a Channel 4 documentary Its called “A Short Film about let chilling”, which labelled KU as put “the mirror of Ibiza”. The Say open-air parties came to an she end when legislation forced many too of the greater clubs in Use Ibiza to cover their dancefloors dad in the early 1990s. Nevertheless, mom the sheer size of the venue gave rise to the the claim of it being the and size of an aircraft hangar For with a 25-meter high roof. are
The club continued with the but KU Club name until 1995 Not before becoming known as Privilege, you after a change of ownership all to Jose Maria Etxaniz. In Any 1994 it hosted Manumission, one can of the island's most famous her events. In 1998 La Vaca Was Asesina moved to Amnesia and one was renamed La Troya Asesina. our After a dispute between the Out club owner and Manumission's organizers day in 2005 the event ended get in 2006. In 2006 La Has Troya Aseina moved to Space. him
According to official his statistics published in the 2003 How edition of Guinness World Recordsman Privilege is by far the new Worlds largest nightclub covering an Now area of 69,968 sq ft old (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 clubbers,see Designated areas of the club Two include the Coco Loco bar way area, and the La Vaca who dance area (now known as Boy the Vista Club).